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Table 1 Emerging biomarkers potentially useful for the immunotherapy of cancer

From: Emerging concepts in biomarker discovery; The US-Japan workshop on immunological molecular markers in oncology

Biomarker Therapy Disease References
Predictive biomarkers
Telomere length Adoptive therapy Melanoma [8]
VEGF IL-2 therapy Melanoma [9]
CCR5 polymorphism IL-2 therapy Melanoma [161]
Carbonic Anhydrase IX IL-2 therapy Renal Cell Cancer [267, 268]
IFN-γ polymorphism Immuno (IL-2)-chemo Melanoma [240]
STAT-1, CXCL-9, -10, -11, ISGs IFN-α therapy Several Cancers [182, 183]
IL-1α,-1β, IL-6, TNF-a, CCL3, CCL4 IFN-α therapy Melanoma [262]
CCL5, CCL11, IFN-γ, ICOS, CD20 GSK/MAGE3 vaccine Melanoma [11, 12]
IL-6 polymorphism BCG vaccine Bladder Cancer [259]
MFG-E8 GM-CSF/GVAX (pre-clin) Prostate [273, 274]
T regulatory cells hTERT pulsed DCs Solid Cancer [275]
K-ras mutation Cetuximab Colorectal Cancer [10]
CCL2, -3, -4, -5 CXCL-9, -10 Preclinical Melanoma [160]
T cell mulifunctionality Preclinical - [41]
SNAIL Preclinical - [43]
Prognostic Biomarkers (useful for patient stratification/data interpretation)
Oncotype DX, Mamma Print - Breast Cancer [13, 14]
TGF-β - Breast Cancer [34]
Korn Score - Prostate Cancer [15]
IFN-γ, IRF-1, STAT-1, ISGs, IL-15, CXCL-9, -10, -11 and CCL5 - Prostate Cancer [254, 255]
IFN-γ, IRF-1, STAT-1 - Colorectal Cancer [134]
VEGF - Colorectal Cancer, Nasopharyngeal Ca [141, 207]
ARPC2, FN1, RGS1, WNT2   Melanoma [195197]
Mechanistic/End Point Biomarkers
IFN-γ, IRF-1, STAT-1, ISGs, IL-15, CXCL-9, -10, -11 and CCL5 IL-2 therapy/TLR-7 therapy Melanoma/Basal Cell Cancer [121, 126, 21]
IRF-1, STAT-1, ISGs, IL-15, CXCL-9, -10, -11 and CCL5 Vaccinia virus (Xenografts) Solid tumors [137]
CXCL-9, -10 Herpes simplex virus (syngeneic model) Ovarian CA [166]
18F-FDG localization Anti-CTLA-4 therapy Melanoma [102]
Epitope Spreading DC-based therapy Melanoma [36]
Kinetic regression/growth model - - [24]