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Table 1 Baseline clinico-pathologic characteristics and serum level of CEA or HMGB1 according to disease groups

From: Serum high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is closely associated with the clinical and pathologic features of gastric cancer

Groups of diseases (n) Normal (50) High-risk Group (50)* EGC Group (40) AGC Group (45) Metastatic GC group (42)
Clinical factors      
Age (mean ± S.D; year) 56.0 ± 13 57.5 ± 12.3 61.5 ± 12.0 59.8 ± 13.7 54.7 ± 11.9
Male/female (n) 32:18 31:19 25:15 28:17 26:16
H. pylori infection (-/+, n) 21:29 30:20 18:22 27:18 20:22
Pathological factors      
Size of main tumor (cm) NS NS 4.1 ± 2.7 9.2 ± 5.9 11.8 ± 4.6
Differentiation NS NS    
Intestinal type    25 21 14
   Diffuse type    15 24 28
Tumor location NS NS    
   Antrum/Body    31 28 21
   Cardia    9 10 12
   Diffuse    0 7 7
Depth of invasion NS NS    
m, sm    24, 16 2, 0 0, 0
mp, ss    0 9, 13 3, 10
se, a1–3    0 19, 2 1, 0
Lymph-node metastasis NS NS    
N0    39 9 1
N1    1 17 2
N2    0 10 3
N3    0 9 8
Lymphovascular invasion (-/+) NS NS 33: 7 10: 35 6: 10
Distant metastatic organ NS NS NS NS  
Liver      18
Peritoneum      19
Others      16
   Stage NS NS    
I    40   
II     19  
III     26  
IV      42
Serum CEA (ng/ml) 1.7 ± 0.8 2.6 ± 1.8 1.6 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 8.1 46.3 ± 551.5
Serum HMGB1 (ng/ml)§ 3.9 ± 3.4 6.3 ± 6.3 9.9 ± 11.5 16.5 ± 27.4 14.1 ± 13.2
  1. EGC, early gastric cancer; ACG, advanced gastric cancer; GC, gastric cancer; H. pylori, Helicobacter pylori; mucosa; sm, sub-mucosa; mp, muscularis propria; ss, sub-serosa; se, serosa, a1, adventitia; a2, definite invasion into adventitia; a3, invasion into neighboring structures; N0, no lymph node metastases; N1, 1 to 6 regional lymph node metastases; n2, 7 to 15; N3, greater than 15; NS, not studied.
  2. *This group includes intestinal metaplasia and adenoma.
  3. Others include ovary, pancreas, colon, bone, adrenal gland, lung, etc.
  4. Serum CEA level was not significantly different among normal, high-risk, EGC, and AGC groups (ANOVA, p > 0.05). It was merely significantly higher in metastatic GC group (M group) compared with other groups (p <0.05).
  5. §Serum HMGB1 level was significantly difference among normal, high-risk, EGC, AGC, and M groups (ANOVA, p <0.05). And serum HMGB1 level tended to increase according to the progression of the gastric carcinogenesis.
  6. Pathological factors such as depth of invasion, node metastasis, frequency of lymphovascular or perineural invasion were not fully investigated in M group because most of patients in this stage could not be received an operation.