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Table 1 Studies examining gender-differences independent of gonadal hormones in response to cellular stressors

From: Pathways to ischemic neuronal cell death: are sex differences relevant?

Author Age* Insult Treatment/drug/mutation Sex difference Key molecules
Du, L [21] Neurons Cytotoxic agents estradiol, NMDA antagonist, z-VAD, PARP inhibitor, antioxidants Yes AIF, cytochrome C, glutathione
Hagberg, H [53] Neonatal 50 minutes unilateral hypoxia-ischemia PARP-1 -/- Yes NAD+, PAR
Heyer, A [37] Neurons 15 hr. Hypoxia testosterone Yes sex hormones, estrogen receptors
Kitano, H [60] Neonatal and adult 2 hr. MCAO isoflurane PC, Akt KO Yes Akt, NIPK
Li, H [48] Neurons Oxygen-glucose deprivation & NMDA 7-nitroindazole, estradiol Yes SOD, NO(x)
Li, K [57] Juvenile Embolic infarct None Yes various cytokines
Liu, M [38] Astrocytes Oxygen-glucose deprivation & cytotoxic agents Arimidex, estradiol Yes cyp19 mRNA, aromatase activity
Mabley, J. G. [12] Adult LPS injections OVX, PARP-1 -/- Yes TNF, PAR, Erα
Mcullough, L. D. [4] Adult 90 min. MCAO nNOS -/-, PARP- 1-/-, OVX, PJ-34, 7-nitroindozole Yes eNOS, iNOS, nNOS
Nijboer, CH [11] Neonatal (P7) 2 hr. Hypoxia-ischemia 2-iminobiotin Yes AIF, cytochrome C, caspase-3
Nijboer, CH [51] Neonatal (P3) 2 hr. Hypoxia-ischemia 2-iminobiotin Yes AIF, cytochrome C, caspase-3, HSP70
Park, EM [59] Adult 20 min. MCAO OVX, PARP-1 -/-, aminoguanidine, iNOS-/- Mixed iNOS
Renolleau, S [22] Neonatal 50 min. MCAO Q-VD-Oph Yes cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-1
Wen, TC [23] Neonatal permanent MCAO Erythropoietin Yes None
Zhang, L [42] Neurons None None Yes Phospho-ERK1, Akt, Bcl-2
Zhu, C [54] Neonatal 45 min. Unilateral hypoxia-ischemia Q-VD-OPh, Edaravone, Harlequin mutation No AIF, cytochrome C, caspase-3, PAR
Zhu, C [56] Neonatal and Adult 45–65 min. Unilateral hypoxia-ischemia None Mixed AIF, cytochrome C, caspase-3, PAR, nitrotyrosine
  1. *all studies were performed on rats or mice