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Table 1 Tools of Translational Science in Medicine as backbone of an emerging science

From: Translational medicine: science or wishful thinking?

New biomarker development, e.g. imaging or serum parameters
Translational toxicology including more powerful biomarkers
Biomarker scoring systems to grade their predictive potency
Smart, early human study design, including novel approaches e.g. microdosing and descriptive trials
Biostatistics development to cope with multiple read-out problems and small human studies
Human genetics