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Table 3 Cytokines involved in inflammation in ovarian cancer

From: Ovarian cancer, the coagulation pathway, and inflammation

Cytokine Effect
TGF-β Stimulates tumor cell attachment and invasion by upregulating plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1
  Deregulates expression of the major histocompatibility complex
  Deregulates costimulatory antigen expression by dendritic cells
  Suppresses Th1-Th2 cells and the conversion of pro-cytotoxic T lymphocytes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes
  Suppresses the proliferation response to antigen-presenting cells
  Inhibits natural killer and MA activation
IL-6 Upregulates tumor cell attachment
  Interferes with macrophage maturation in dendritic cells
  Inhibits cell proliferation through PI3K (phosphatidylinositol3-kinase)
  Suppresses Th1-Th2 transformation
IL-10 Deregulates expression of major compatibility complex on T cells
  Deregulates costimulatory antigen expression
  Suppresses cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation and Th1-Th2 transformation
  Inhibits interferon production
  Inhibits T cell production
VEGF Increases neoangiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis
  Increases prevalence of ascites
FGF-2 Increases tumor cell invasion and metastasis
TNF-α Increases adhesion molecule expression
  Induces tumor cell apoptosis
  Increases tissue factor expression
  Decreases the expression of thrombomodulin and EPCR