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Table 2 Expression and clinical features of hK members in ovarian cancer

From: Ovarian cancer, the coagulation pathway, and inflammation

hK family member Location Expression level and site Clinical feature Prognosis
hK4 Tumor cells Increased in EOC tissue Predictive marker for paclitaxel resistance[22] Unfavorable
hK5 Serum, ascites, and tumor extracts [23, 24] Increased on tumor cells and in serum and ascites Potential biomarker for diagnosis Unfavorable
hK6 Tumor cell[26] and serum[25] High in early-stage and low-grade tumor tissue and in EOC serum Overexpression is an early phenomenon in the development of ECO; serum level could be used as a biomarker Unfavorable
hK7 Tumor tissue[27] High in late-stage EOC A potential biomarker for diagnosis Unfavorable
hK8 Tumor extract, serum, and ascites[29] High in serum and ascites High level is associated with good prognosis[28, 29] Favorable
hK9 Tumor cells[30] High in tumor tissue early-stage and optimal debulking patients Associated with longer progression-free and overall survival times Favorable
hK10 Serum[33] and tumor cells[31,32] High in serum and on tumor cells High serum level is associated with increased risk for relapse and death; a potential biomarker for diagnosis Unfavorable
hK11 Serum, ascites[37], and tumor extract [34-36] Increased in tumor samples High level is an independent factor for favorable prognosis and is associated with long progression-free and overall survival times and with slower disease progression[34, 35]; however, high level is also associated with poor survival rate[36]. Depends
hK13 Tumor tissue[38] verexpressed in tumor tissue Associated with longer progression-free and overall survival times Favorable
hK14 Tumor cells[41] and serum[40] Increased in tumor tissue and serum Associated with longer progression-free and overall survival times; an independent prognostic factor Favorable
hK15 Tumor extract[42] Increased in tumor tissue Associated with short progression-free and overall survival times; an independent prognostic factor Unfavorable