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Table 1 Coagulation factors and the associated regulatory proteins in EOC

From: Ovarian cancer, the coagulation pathway, and inflammation

Coagulation factors Effects
Tissue factor (TF) ↑ Promoting angiogenesis by activation of MAPK[73] and protein C kinase C-dependent signaling[76]; TF-PAR2 selectively synergizes with PDGF-BB to enhance to metastasis in lymphnodes[78].
Promoting invasion and metastasis by the activation of P21Ras and P42/P44 MAPK pathway to inhibit apoptosis[14]; overexpressing growth factors and chemokines (i.e. IL-8)[13].
TF-VII-PAR2 ↑ Promoting angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis by clotting-independent mechanism[77] in presence of inflammatory cytokines
Factor X ↑ Forming complex with TF-VIIa to promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis[14]
Thrombin/PAR1 ↑ Promoting angiogenesis by inhibiting EC migration to collagen type IV or to laminin[99]; upregulating VEGF expression[100].
Promoting invasion and metastasis depended on at least 6 mechanisms (text)
Fibrinogen/fibrin ↑ Stimulating angiogenesis; the fibrin gel matrix facilitating tumor metastasis; increasing plasma exudates to form ascites[129, 130, 132].
Factor XII/XI ↑ Positive feedback on human kallikreins system
Factor XIII ↑ Form stable fibrin
Regulatory proteins
Heparin cofactor II ↑ Produce chemoattractant peptide for MAs migration.
Endothelial protein C receptor ↑ Intensifying APC-PAR1 signal transduction [205] and contributing to antiapoptosis in tumor.
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor ↓ Loss of control of tumor growth and metastasis by activating Factor Xa and increasing Factor Xa-PAR2 signaling[81].
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 ↓ Loss of Inhibiting TF-VIIa complex and various protease but not Factor Xa;
Loss of antiangiogenesis and antimetastasis.