MIF is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues, especially in those with diabetes, compared with PC patients without DM history or chronic pancreatitis patients. Immunohistochemical analysis of MIF in paraffin. sections shows: (A) Chronic pancreatitis showing weak, sporadic cytoplasmic staining in gland, and weak to moderate, diffused cytoplasmic staining in islets (red arrow). (B) Normal pancreas, islets also showed weak to moderate MIF staining, but MIF expression in adjacent glands was much weaker and frequently lost. (C1&C2) In pancreatic cancer tissues, an increased, diffused cytoplasmic MIF expression in both tumor cells and adjacent islets (red arrow). (D) Real-time quantitative PCR on pancreatic cancer tissues form patients with different DM history and chronic pancreatitis tissues. Compared with the other groups, an significant increased MIF mRNA level in new-onset DM PC tissues was observed.