LMFs up-regulate CD163 expression on monocytes via PGE2. (A, B) Monocytes were left untreated (MO) or were cultured with the indicated supernatants (NF, supernatants from normal skin fibroblasts; LMF, supernatants from LMFs) or PGE2 (25 ng/mL) for 6 days. CD163 expression on monocytes was determined using flow cytometry, and the production of PGE2 in supernatants was assessed using an ELISA. The histograms in A are representative of five separate experiments. Gray filled profile show the isotype control. Values shown in B represent the means ± SEM of five separate experiments. **(P < 0.01) indicates a significant difference compared with untreated monocytes or normal skin fibroblast/monocyte cocultures. (C) Expression of COX2 by normal skin fibroblasts (NF), LMFs (LMF) or cocultures of monocytes (NF + MO or LMF + MO). (D) Analysis of the expression of COX2 on LMFs (FAP+) in diseased liver samples using confocal microscopy. The micrographs show that LMFs express COX2 in situ; 1 out of 10 representative micrographs is shown. Bar, 50 μm.