Effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on apoptosis in chronic CsA nephropathy. (A) TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical stain of active caspase-3 in kidney tissues of the experimental groups. (B) Quantitative analysis of TUNEL-positive nuclei in the experimental groups. The number of TUNEL-positive nuclei was significantly reduced in the CsA + OA group compared with the CsA group. *p <0.01 vs. other groups. (C) Quantitative analysis of the cleaved caspase-3 results. Cleaved caspase-3, a pro-apoptotic marker, was significantly decreased in CsA + OA compared with CsA. *p <0.01 vs. other groups. TUNEL = terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin nick end-labeling; VH = vehicle-treated group; VH + OA = Vehicle plus oleanolic acid-treated group; CsA = cyclosporine-treated group; CsA + OA = cyclosporine plus oleanolic acid-treated group.