Exosome profiling across first trimester pregnancy. Enriched exosomal population (i.e. number of exosome particles) and placenta-derived exosomes (i.e. exosomal PLAP) were quantified in in peripheral plasma of women in the first trimester of pregnancy by ELISA. (A) exosomes as particles per ml plasma. (B) individual variation in exosome number for each week (C) exosomal PLAP during first trimester of pregnancy (i.e. 6–12 weeks). (D) individual variation in exosomal PLAP for each week. Data are presented as aligned dot plot and values are mean ± SEM. In A, two-way ANOVA **p = 0.0048, Dunn’s post-hoc test analysis = *p < 0.05 6 vs. 7 weeks and †
p < 0.005: 6 vs. 12 weeks. In C, two-way ANOVA ***p < 0.0001, Dunn’s post-hoc test analysis = *p < 0.05 6 vs. 9 and 10 weeks, †
p < 0.005: 6 vs. 11 and 12 weeks, and ‡
p < 0.005: 8 vs. 11 and 12 weeks.