The effect of DS/Cu on the expression level of Nrf2 as well as on JNK and NF-κB pathways. Raji cells were exposed to DS3.3μM/Cu1 μM , DS 3.3μM or Cu 1μM for indicated time lengths. The expression levels and phosphorylation status of proteins in JNK (B) (after 6 hours’ treatment) as well as the expression levels of Nrf2 (A) (after 24 hours’ treatment) and NF-κB pathways (C) (after 24 hours’ treatment) were detected by western blot. All the proteins detected here were from whole proteins. –VE: control.