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Table 1 Key features of the main extracellular vesicle populations

From: Exosomal miRNAs as potential biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in children

Feature Exosomes Microvesicles Apoptotic bodies
1-Size 40-100 nm 100-1000 nm 1000-5000
2-Markers CD63, CD9, Alix, and TSG101 Annexin V, integrin, selectin, flotillim-2 Annexin , DNA, histones
3-Cell shapes Multivesicular bodies fusion with plasmatic membrane Membrane blebbing Cell shrinkage and cell death
4-Contents Proteins, RNA, and miRNA Proteins, RNA, and miRNA Membrane permeable Cell organelles, proteins, DNA, RNA, and miRNA
5-Detection methods FACS with CD68 capture, electron microscopy, Western blot for exosomes enriched markers FACS and electron microscopy FACS and electron microscopy
6- Isolation method Ultracentrifugation (100,000-200,000 g), precipitation, ultracentrifugation with density gradient Immunoprecipitation (ExoQuick) Ultracentrifugation (10,000- 60,000 g) No standardized method
7-Mechanism of release Exocytosis of MVBs Budding from plasma membrane Cell shrinkage and plasma membrane blebbing during cell death
References [34] [35] [36]