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Table 1 Serum levels of sCD40L, CA19-9, and CEA in both training and independent validation datasets

From: Clinical significance of elevated serum soluble CD40 ligand levels as a diagnostic and prognostic tumor marker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

(Training set) Groups (n)
Values Normal (n = 25) CP(n = 25) PDAC (n = 25) p- value
Serum sCD40L (ng/ml) 9170.5 ± 5449.8* 17648.9 ± 7264.0 30044.2 ± 9747.9 < 0.001
Serum CA19-9 (U/ml) 7.9 ± 7.1 136.8 ± 329.8 5795.4 ± 7842.7 < 0.001
Serum CEA (ng/ml) 2.3 ± 1.5 2.9 ± 2.0 367.9 ± 1709.4 0.428
(Validation set) Groups (n)
Values Normal (n = 30) CP (n = 30) PDAC (n = 55) p- value
Serum sCD40L (ng/ml) 10540.1 ± 5159.9 18709.4 ± 8786.6 27924.6 ± 10202.9 < 0.001
Serum CA19-9 (U/ml) 8.5 ± 7.5 119.6 ± 299.7 3932.7 ± 6839.2 < 0.001
Serum CEA (ng/ml) 2.2 ± 1.4 2.6 ± 2.0 271.4 ± 1246.8 0.359
  1. sCD40L, soluble CD40 ligand; CA19-9, carbohydrate antigen 19–9; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; CP, chronic pancreatitis; PDAC, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
  2. *All tested values are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation.
  3. We included CP patients as the high-risk group of PDAC.
  4. One-way ANOVA test with the multiple comparisons using the post-hoc Bonferroni method is applied to compare the differences in the means among three disease groups.
  5. p < 0.05 (two-tailed) was considered to be statistically significant.