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Table 1 Effect of long-term treatment with ramipril (I/R ramipril) and lixisenatide (I/R lixisenatide) after transient ischemia reperfusion injury

From: Cardioprotective effects of lixisenatide in rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury studies

  Sham I/R Placebo I/R ramipril (1 mg/kg/d p.o.) I/R lixisenatide (10 μg/kg/d s.c.)
Body Weight (g) 441 ± 9 432 ± 9 403 ± 7* 390 ± 6*
Food consumption (mg/kg/d) 73 ± 3 78 ± 2 72 ± 5 79 ± 4
Water consumption (mL/kg/d) 116 ± 3 120 ± 2 168 ± 5* 120 ± 2
Plasma BNP (pg/mL) 112 ± 5* 178 ± 14 113 ± 6* 110 ± 7*
Plasma glucose (mmol/L) 8.8 ± 0.2 8.8 ±0.3 8.6 ± 0.3 8.0 ± 0.4
Plasma triglyceride (mmol/L) 0.61 ± 0.09 0.49 ± 0.05 0.44 ± 0.04 0.47 ± 0.03
Plasma ACE activity [U/L] 186 ± 17 206 ± 37 51 ± 11* 192 ± 10
LVP (mmHg) 118 ± 5* 106 ± 3 97 ± 2* 105 ± 3
LVedP (mmHg) 3.22 ± 0.49* 10.32 ± 1.45 5.11 ± 0.93* 4.52 ± 0.43*
dP/dt max (mmHg/sec) 6695 ± 268* 5023 ± 210 4724 ± 197 5136 ± 243
dP/dt min (mmHg/sec) −6877 ± 373* −4463 ± 206 −4499 ± 184 −4683 ± 278
Heart Rate (beats/min) 324 ± 8 316 ± 6 327 ± 7 308 ± 8
tau Weiss (msec) 8.39 ± 0.45* 15.08 ± 0.75 11.93 ± 0.76* 11.37 ± 0.47*
Heart Weight (g/100 g BW) 0.26 ± 0.01* 0.29 ± 0.01 0.28 ± 0.01 0.28 ± 0.01
Cardiac expansion index 0.29 ± 0.02 0.28 ± 0.04 0.23 ± 0.05 0.30 ± 0.05
Lung Weight (g/100 g BW) 0.44 ± 0.03* 0.63 ± 0.05 0.44 ± 0.02* 0.43 ± 0.02*
Liver Weight (g/100 g BW) 3.31 ± 0.04 3.23 ± 0.06 3.12 ± 0.05 3.02 ± 0.16
Right Kidney Weight (g/100 g BW) 0.30 ± 0.01 0.30 ± 0.01 0.35 ± 0.01* 0.30 ± 0.01
  1. Abbreviations used are brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), left ventricular pressure (LVP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVedP), myocardial contractility/relaxation (dP/dtmax, dP/dtmin), heart rate, relaxation time (tau Weiss). Mean values ± SEM are shown. *) indicates p < 0.05 versus the placebo group (I/R injury without treatment).