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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population and analysis of the demographic characteristics and HIV-related parameters between low bone mineral density (LBMD) patients (T-score < -1) and normal bone mineral density (NBMD) patients (T-score ≥ -1)

From: Association between peripheral T-Lymphocyte activation and impaired bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients

  TOTAL (n = 78) LBMD (n = 55) NBMD (n = 23) P§
Demographic characteristics     
male 68% 66.7% 69.6% 0.80*
mean age (IC 95%) 46 (43–48) 46 (43–48) 45 (40–50) 0.81
mean BMI (IC 95%) 23.4 (22.5-24.3) 23.4 (22.5-24.9) 24.6 (23.0-26.2) 0.16
HIV-related parameters     
AIDS diagnosis 22% 23% 17% 0.54*
time from HIV diagnosis (IC 95%) 7.8 years (6.3-9.3) 7.8 years (5.8-9.8) 7.8 years (5.5-10.4) 0.99
mean CD4 nadir (IC 95%) 268 cell/mm3 (226–310) 266 cell/mm3 (214–317) 265 cell/mm3 (195–336) 0.98
mean current CD4 (IC 95%) 507 cell/mm3 (437–577) 490 cell/mm3 (400–579) 512 cell/mm3 (407–617) 0.77
mean CD4/CD8 ratio (IC 95%) 0.7 (0.59-0.80) 0.7 (0.54-0.77) 0.8 (0.56-1.02) 0.25
co-infection with viral hepatitis     
HCV Ab positivity 10% 12% 4% 0.26**
HBsAg positivity 5% 3% 8% 0.63**
naïve patients 26% 28% 17% 0.31**
mean time of HAART exposure (IC 95%) 4.6 years (3.4-5.9) 4.0 years (2.6-5.5) 6.2 years (3.8-8.7) 0.13
type of HAART     0.40*
TDF-based backbone 53% 54% 53%  
PI-based 33% 34% 35%  
NNRTI-based 37% 33% 48%  
undetectable viremia (HIV-RNA <40 UI/mL) (in patients on HAART) 92% 88% 94% 1.00*
  1. §p, comparison between LBMD and NBMD patients by *Pearson’s chi-squared test and **Fisher’s exact test.