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Table 2 Association of RKIP expression in tumor buds with clinicopathological features (n = 98)

From: Loss of Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is strongly associated with high-grade tumor budding and correlates with an aggressive phenotype in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)

Feature   Frequency N (%) P-value
   Low (n = 68; 69.4) High (n = 30; 30.6)  
Sex (n = 97) Male 42 (62.7) 12 (40.0) 0.0476
  Female 25 (37.3) 18 (60.0)  
Age at diagnosis (yrs) Median (min, max) 65 (42–83) 61 (35–84) 0.914
Tumor size (cm) Median (min, max) 3 (1.2-6.5) 3.3 (1.2-10) 0.6526
pT classification (n = 97) pT1-2 3 (4.5) 7 (23.3) 0.0089
  pT3-4 64 (95.5) 23 (76.7)  
Tumor grade (n = 98) G1-2 8 (11.8) 3 (10.0) 1.0
  G3 60 (88.2) 27 (90.0)  
pN classification (n = 97) pN0 12 (17.9) 5 (16.7) 1.0
  pN1-2 55 (82.1) 25 (83.3)  
pM classification (n = 97) pM0 62 (92.5) 27 (90.0) 0.6996
  pM1 5 (7.5) 3 (10.0)  
Pn classification (n = 96) Pn0 0 (0.0) 1 (3.5) 0.3021
  Pn1 67 (100.0) 28 (96.6)  
Lymphatic invasion (n = 97) Negative 13 (19.4) 6 (200.) 1.0
  Positive 54 (80.6) 24 (80.0)  
Venous invasion (n = 97) Negative 53 (79.1) 22 (73.3) 0.6025
  Positive 14 (20.9) 8 (26.7)  
R classification (n = 97) R0 45 (67.2) 22 (73.3) 0.6382
  R1 22 (32.8) 8 (26.7)  
Adjuvant chemo (n = 89) Untreated 1 (1.6) 2 (7.4) 0.2174
  Treated 61 (98.4) 25 (92.6)  
Tumor budding 10-in-10 Low-grade 16 (26.2) 10 (33.3) 0.6221
(n = 91) High-grade 45 (73.8) 20 (66.7)  
Intratumoral budding Negative/Low 26 (38.2) 12 (41.4) 0.8224
(n = 97) Medium/High 42 (61.8) 17 (58.6)  
°Fisher’s Exact test     
  1. Cutoff 10%.