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Table 1 Association of RKIP expression in main tumor with clinicopathological features (n = 114)

From: Loss of Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is strongly associated with high-grade tumor budding and correlates with an aggressive phenotype in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)

Feature   Total N (%) Frequency N (%) P-value
    Low (n = 33; 29.0%) High (n = 81; 71.1%)  
Sex (n = 113) Female 52 (46.0) 17 (53.1) 35 (43.2) 0.4573
  Male 61 (54.0) 15 (46.9) 46 (56.8)  
Age at diagnosis (yrs) (n = 112) Median (min, max) 65 (35–84) 65 (42–83) 65 (35–84) 0.8265
Tumor size (cm) (n = 109) Median (min, max) 3.0 (1.2-10) 3.0 (1.3-6.5) 3.0 (1.2-10) 0.5498
pT classification (n = 112) pT1-2 10 (8.9) 0 (0.0) 10 (12.5) 0.0599°
  pT3-4 102 (91.1) 32 (100.0) 70 (87.5)  
Tumor grade (n = 114) G1-2 16 (14.0) 2 (6.1) 14 (17.3) 0.205
  G3 98 (86.0) 31 (93.9) 67 (82.7)  
pN classification (n = 112) pN0 20 (17.9) 5 (15.6) 15 (18.8) 0.9068
  pN1-2 92 (82.1) 27 (84.4) 65 (81.3)  
pM classification (n = 112) pM0 103 (92.0) 28 (87.5) 75 (93.8) 0.4749
  pM1 9 (8.0) 4 (12.5) 5 (6.3)  
Pn classification (n = 110) Pn0 1 (0.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.3) 1.0
  Pn1 109 (99.1) 32 (100.0) 77 (98.7)  
Lymphatic invasion (n = 112) Negative 21 (18.8) 4 (12.5) 17 (21.3) 0.4215
  Positive 91 (81.3) 28 (87.5) 63 (78.8)  
Venous invasion (n = 112) Negative 88 (78.6) 24 (75.0) 64 (80.0) 0.7431
  Positive 24 (21.4) 8 (25.0) 16 (20.0)  
R classification (n = 111) R0 78 (70.3) 21 (65.6) 57 (72.2) 0.6511
  R1 33 (29.7) 11 (34.4) 22 (27.9)  
Adjuvant chemo (n = 105) Untreated 3 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (4.1) 0.6204
  Treated 102 (97.1) 31 (100.0) 71 (96.0)  
Tumor budding 10-in-10 Low-grade 33 (30.8) 3 (10.3) 30 (38.5) 0.0048 *
(n = 107) High-grade 77 (69.2) 26 (89.7) 48 (61.5)  
Intratumoral budding Negative/Low 48 (42.9) 9 (27.3) 39 (49.4) 0.0373 **
(n = 112) Medium/High 64 (57.1) 24 (72.7) 40 (50.6)  
  1. Cutoff 10% (ROC cutoff value).
  2. *Odds ratio estimate for high-grade tumor budding predicted by loss of RKIP is OR (95%CI): 5.42 (1.51-19.5).
  3. ** Odds ratio estimate of medium/high grade budding predicted by loss of RKIP is OR (95%CI): 2.6 (1.07-6.29).