Intracellular signaling factors and mechanisms targeting pH
and the Na+/H+exchanger in the apoptosis of cancer cells. This integrated and homeostatic pH-related perspective can help to foretell pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors in order to find synergistic therapies and potential antagonisms (MDR) in anticancer treatment. Abbreviations: ↑: Stimulation; ↓: inhibition; SST: somatostatin; SHP1: protein tyrosine phosphatase; MDR: multiple drug resistance; GFs: growth factors; Cyt C: cytochrome C; NO: nitric oxide. TFWS: trophic factor withdrawal syndrome; αCD95 (Fas/Apo-1) death receptor; JNK: Jun-terminal kinase; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; PTI: proton transport inhibitors; ICE: interleukin-1β-converting enzyme. (For further details, see text and refs. [5, 29, 30]. (Modified from refs. [5, 29] by permission from Dove Medical Press, Ltd., and Anticancer Research).