Effect of TGase-4 on tumour growth in viv o and localisation and co-localisation of TGase-4 and the focal adhesion complex proteins. TOP panel: far left - TGase-4 and in vivo growth of tumours. PC-3 over-expressing TGase-4 cells grow significantly faster than control cells (shown are medians). IFC panels: immunofluorescence staining of TGase-4, phosho-FAK, FAK, phospho-Paxillin and Paxillin (left to right) in control and TGase-4 expression PC3 tumour xenograft. TGase-4: Tumours from PC3/TGase4 cells displayed staining of TGase-4 in the cytoplasmic region as well as in the cell peripheries (arrows). Control tumours were negative for TGase-4 staining and mostly missing pFAK and pPaxillin staining, although they are positive for FAK and Paxillin. PC3/TGase4 were seen to stain both pFAK and pPaxillin as well as stain strongly for total FAK and Paxillin (arrows). BOTTOM panel: Immunofluorescence co-staining of FAK (left), paxillin (middle) and β1-integrin (right) with TGase-4 in human prostate tissues. Shown in each panel are the match images of FAK/paxillin/integrin, TGase-4 and nucleus staining (Hoescht33528), and the merged image between FAK, paxillin, or integrin and TGase-4. TGase-4 staining appeared in both cells and matrix. There co-localisations of the FAC proteins and TGase-4 were seen in the tissues.