Bioreactor. (A) Segments of PCA were secured between stainless steel cannulae. The chamber was assembled by sealing a glass front plate onto the supporting chamber. (B) Culture medium was circulated from a reservoir via a peristaltic pump through the inlet cannula to perfuse the interior of the vessel, before leaving through the outflow cannula and perfusing the exterior of the vessel. Media was then returned to the reservoir by flowing through the exit port. Vessels were perfused at constant flow rate for 12 days prior to harvesting for histology and SMC explant culture.