ADT induced expression of VIM in PCa cells. Double immunofluorescent staining showed that in human hormone-naive PCa, high-grade cancer cells showed strong cytoplasmic expression of K18 in green (A) and no expression of VIM (B). VIM staining in red was present in the tissue (mostly in cytoplasm of stromal cells) but was exclusive from K18-positive cells (B and D). In contrast, in human PCa treated with ADT, a small population of high-grade PCa cells expressed both K18 (E) and VIM ( arrow in F) as shown in the merged image ( arrow and insert in H). In control TSGs derived from HRPCa-2, K18 (I) and VIM (J) displayed mutually exclusive staining (L). In CR-TSGs, a rare population of cancer cells expressing both VIM ( arrow in N) and K18 (M) was observed in the merged image ( arrow and insert in P). (C), (G), (K), and (O) showed nuclear DAPI staining of the same cells in (A-B), (E-F), (I-J), and (M-N), respectively. Magnification for all images is 40X.