Effects of ADT on AR target genes, cell proliferation, and graft weight in HRPCa-4 TSGs. ADT dramatically increased the expression of TOP2A in CR-TSGs (B) compared to control (A). Similarly, the number of CCNA-positive cells was 2.4-fold higher in CR-TSGs (D) that in control TSGs (C). Ki67-positive cells were dramatically decreased in CR-TSGs (F) compared to control TSGs (E). This decrease was statistically significant as was the decrease in graft weight in response to ADT by Student’s t-test (G). ADT also decreased cell proliferation and upregulated CCNA expression in HRPCa-2 (H) and HRPCa-3 (I). The values in castrated TSGs were normalized against control. * marks significant difference between castrated and control TSGs defined as p<0.05 by Student’s t-test.