Continuous wall stress measurement in the mouse model. A. Simultaneous M-mode echocardiogram and LVP monitoring in obtaining continuous wall stress (CWS). The CWS curve was obtained from direct simultaneous measurement of LVID, LVPW, and LVP every 1 msec. Blue line outlines LV endocardial surfaces ( a and b ) and epicardial surface ( c ). Red line and green line indicate electrocardiogram (ECG) and LVP measurement, respectively. When calculating wall stress, LVID and LVPW were used as inner diameter and wall thickness, respectively. B: CWS curve obtained from the formula (see text) with dobutamine stimulation (baseline, 5, and 10 μg/kg/min) in the normal control mouse. IWS was calculated as an area below CWS curve over unit time.