BMP-4 VACV controls tumor growth and improves survival in mice implanted with GBM CSCs (high tumor burden). A) Median tumor signals as measured by intracranial FLuc expression from GBM FLuc CSC line implanted in mice followed by inoculation of GLV-1h189 or GLV-1h285 seven weeks post implantation. GLV-1h189-colonized tumors peaked at 26 dpi compared to GLV-1h285 which peaked at 39 dpi. In GLV-1h189-colonized tumors furthermore, at 62 dpi a signal increase due to recurrence of the originally recessed tumor was observed. B) Kaplan-Meier survival curve for the experiment described in A. All animals in the untreated group died around 42 dpi. A drop in survival was observed for both treated groups of animals albeit later for the GLV-1h285 group following the trend in tumor signal peaks. However, the survival advantage for the GLV-1h285 group was superior with almost 60% of the treated animals surviving compared to only 10% of the animals surviving in the GLV-1h189 group. C) Representative whole brains from the mice in the untreated group (top left), GLV-1h189 group (top right) and GLV-1h285 group (bottom). The untreated brain showed an enlarged right half of the cerebrum where severe necrosis and hematoma were observed. The brain from the only surviving mouse in the GLV-1h189 group and representative brains from the GLV-1h285 group show healthy brain tissue. * Indicates P < 0.05 for the GLV-1h285 group compared with untreated or the GLV-1h189 groups. ** Indicates P < 0.05 for the GLV-1h189 group compared with the untreated group.