Rapid and superior tumor regression in GBM CSC implanted mice by BMP-4 VACV translates into improved survival (low tumor burden). A) Relative tumor signals as measured by intracranial FLuc expression from GBM FLuc CSCs in mice followed by inoculation of GLV-1h189 and GLV-1h285 at two weeks post-implantation. The GLV-1h285-colonized tumors remained at the original size of the point of virus inoculation up to 51 dpi. The GLV-1h189-colonized tumors were controlled until 37 dpi, followed by a rapid increase in tumor size. The untreated controls showed rapid, uncontrolled tumor expansion. B) Survival of the implanted and inoculated mice as shown by Kaplan-Meier survival curves. All mice in the untreated group died by day 60. In the GLV-1h189 group, 60% of the mice expired around 80 dpi. However, in the GLV-1h285 group, all mice were alive until 91 dpi. * Indicates P < 0.05 for the GLV-1h285 group when compared with the untreated or the GLV-1h189 groups.