VACV expressing BMP-4 facilitates growth inhibition by higher levels of replication in GBM CSCs. A) GLV-1h189 and GLV-1h285 were used to infect the GBM CSCs at different MOIs and replication measured by RLuc expression (RLUs, left panel). Higher levels of replication were observed for GLV-1h285 compared to GLV-1h189, especially at the lower MOIs. An MOI of 0 is cells only, uninfected background control. Plaque assays from infections of the GBM CSCs 010627 (0627) and U87s with both viruses confirmed the RLuc expression data (Figure 3A, right panel). A higher viral titer was obtained for GLV-1h285 compared to GLV-1h189 for the CSC line, but GLV-1h285 did not replicate to a higher titer in case of the U87s cell line. B) Growth inhibition assays for GLV-1h189 and GLV-1h285 viruses in the U87s cell line (left) and the GBM CSCs 010627 (0627, right). A higher level of growth inhibition was observed for GLV-1h285 compared to GLV-1h189 in the GBM CSCs. However, similar levels of growth inhibition were observed for U87s for both viruses. C) Growth inhibition in the GBM CSCs upon infection with GLV-1h189 and GLV-1h285 at two time points (6 dpi on left and 9 dpi on right). Growth inhibition decreased at 9 dpi in case of GLV-1h189 infection, possibly due to increase in growth of the cells that escaped infection. However, this escape is not observed in case of GLV-1h285 infection.