Noninvasive assessments of vascular function in nonhuman primates(NHPs). A: FMD measurement in NHPs. A study protocol diagram is shown in panel A. Primates were sedated, and PWV was measured first, followed by baseline femoral diameter measurement (D0). Following a 5-min ischemia, the reactive hyperemia response was triggered by cuff release, and vessel diameter was measured at 1 min of the hyperemia response (D1). Following a recovery from 1st FMD determination, additional drug treatment and 2nd FMD measurement may apply if needed, and this is typically achieved within 40 min. FMD is calculated as percentage change of D1 from D0. An ultrasonographic picture is shown that depicts a femoral artery. B: PWV measurement in NHPs. Pulse waves from the right brachial and femoral arteries, as depicted, were collected. PWV was calculated as the Distance/Time using the equation shown, which is based on distance difference (Δx) between the two detection sites (femoral artery and brachial artery) and Δt, the difference in time lapse of a pressure wave gated to the corresponding ECG R-wave at the two detection sites (B left panel). A window of PWV recording by SphygmoCor program is shown (B right panel). See Method part for detailed description.