Morphological changes in TAECs after heat treatment at different temperatures and inhibition of their proliferation and enhancement of their migration and tube formation after insufficient RFA. (A) Representative micrograph of morphological change in TAECs after a 10-min heat treatment at temperatures ranging from 37 to 55°C. (B) TAECs were cultured after insufficient RFA (42 or 47°C treatment for 10 min). The proliferation of TAECs at 24, 48 and 72 h after heat treatment were measured using the CCK-8 assay. Columns: means from three individual experiments with five samples per group; bars: SE; *: P <0.05; ns: no significance. (C) TAECs were cultured after insufficient RFA and the migration of TAECs at 24, 48 and 72 h were measured using the trans-well assay. Representative micrographs of migration are shown. (D) TAECs were cultured after insufficient RFA and TAEC tube formation at 24, 48 and 72 h was evaluated using the Matrigel tube formation assay. Representative micrographs of tube formation are displayed. Data represent the representative results from three independent experiments with five samples per group.