Differences in relative bacterial OTU counts between neuropathic and healthy bladder in males and females. For every individual, the OTU counts were normalized to the individual's total OTU count. A heat map of the clustered distribution of OTU taxonomy at the level of bacterial order (A) and genus (B) was constructed using the Bray-Curtis index. For panels A and B, only the taxa with a standard deviation > 5% across all individuals are shown. Differences in the average OTU count between females and males are plotted in light and dark gray, respectively (C). In panel (C), the top 15 (8%) most abundant bacterial OTUs are represented. The X-axis indicates the difference in relative OTU counts per bacterial genus indicated on the Y-axis. Statistical significance was established using Kruskal-Wallis test. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between the relative OTU counts are indicated by an asterisk (*) for bladder function, and a plus sign (+) for gender.