Western blot result of oxidative stress and protein and cellular inflammatory biomarkers for ischemic quadriceps by day 21 following CLI procedure (n = 8). A) oxidative index (protein carbonyls) among five groups of animals (a = control, b = CLI only, c = CLI + cilostazol, d = CLI + clopidogrel, e = CLI + combined therapy). B)* vs. other groups with different symbols, p < 0.005. (Note: Right lane and left lane shown on upper panel represent control oxidized molecular protein standard and protein molecular weight marker, respectively). DNP = 1-3 dinitrophenylhydrazone. C) protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. D to H) immunofluorescent (IF) microscopic (400x) findings of CD 68+ cells (white arrows). I)* vs. other groups with different symbols, p < 0.0001. Nuclei (blue color) stained with 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) as counter staining. The scale bars in right lower corner represent 20 μm. Statistical analysis in each group by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison post hoc test. CLI = critical limb ischemia; Cil = cilostazol; Clo = clopidogrel.