Angiogenesis and migratory assay (n = 6). Illustration (100x) of angiogenesis in normal control (A) and obesity (B). The network (blue-dot lone) (C), cluster (red arrow) (D) and tubular (white arrows) (G) formation and tubular length (H), indexes of angiogenesis, were significantly increased in normal control than in obesity. E & F) Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were utilized for formation of angiogenesis platform (100×). The same number of EPCs (1.0 × 103) (DAPI positively stained cells) from normal control and obesity mice were co-cultured with HUVECs (2.0 × 103) in Matrigel for 24 h. The results showed notably higher number of EPCs and cluster formation (black arrow) within the HUVEC-formed angiogenic platform in normal than in obesity. Scale bar in right lower corner represent 100 μm. I & J) Illustration of migratory assay (400×). The blue color represented the nuclei were stained with DAPI. Scale bar in right lower corner represent 20 μm. K) Showing the numbers of migratory EPCs in Transwell, an index of EPC kinesis, were significantly higher in normal control than in obesity. For (D), * vs. normal, p < 0.001; For (C), (G), (H) and (K), * vs. normal, p < 0.0001.