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Table 6 Differences in driving behavior before smoking and half an hour following a Water-Pipe

From: The detrimental danger of water-pipe (Hookah) transcends the hazardous consequences of general health to the driving behavior

Before Water-Pipe smoking -half an hour after smoking (Experimental Group) Pairs: Scinario-1-Scinario-3 Paired Differences t Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Std. Deviation 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Control group Accident(road) .25 1.06 −.42 .92 .82 .429
Accident(car) −1.08 2.15 −2.45 .28 −1.74 .109
Accident(pedestrian) .75 1.36 −.11 1.61 1.91 .082
Exceeding the speed limit −4.00 6.97 −8.43 .43 −1.99 .072
Total number of traffic light tickets .50 1.45 −.42 1.42 1.20 .256
Centerline crossings −1.33 4.12 −3.95 1.28 −1.12 .286
Shoulder crossings .75 3.86 −1.71 3.21 .67 .515
Total time 87.00 155.39 −11.73 185.73 1.94 .079
Total distance −117.17 130.86 −200.31 −34.02 −3.10 .010
Exceeding the speed limit (%time) −7.81 10.81 −14.68 −.94 −2.50 .029
Not within the lane (%time) −.43 4.04 −3.00 2.13 −.37 .718
Experimental group Accident(road) .90 1.81 .38 1.42 3.48 .001
Accident(car) −1.65 2.27 −2.30 −1.00 −5.10 .000
Accident(pedestrian) .45 .89 .19 .70 3.53 .001
Exceeding the speed limit −2.57 6.04 −4.31 −.84 −2.98 .005
Total number of traffic light tickets .44 1.13 .11 .77 2.69 .010
Centerline crossings −2.71 4.25 −3.93 −1.49 −4.47 .000
Shoulder crossings 2.29 6.26 .49 4.08 2.56 .014
Total time 43.19 116.26 9.79 76.58 2.60 .012
Total distance 12.39 959.89 −263.32 288.10 .09 .928
Exceeding the speed limit (%time) −5.41 8.85 −7.95 −2.86 −4.28 .000
Not within the lane (%time) −.57 5.12 −2.04 .90 −.78 .437
  1. Table 6 Shows the mean differences for the driving measures prior to, and half an hour following, WPS. There were no significant changes pertaining to all the measures within the control group. While in the experimental group, many significant changes in driving behavior were found, such as a decrease in the number of road crashes, a significant increase occurred in the number of car accidents, but a significant decrease in the number of pedestrian ones. In all these measures within the control group, the same direction of change was found, though this was not statistically significant. Within the experimental group, there was a significant increase in the number of incidents in which the driver exceeded the speed limit and a significant increase in the number of times the driver crossed the solid divider.