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Table 4 Mean of the various driving measures for the experimental group and control groups (using the various driving measures as experimental group without smoking)

From: The detrimental danger of water-pipe (Hookah) transcends the hazardous consequences of general health to the driving behavior

Variable Scenario Experimental group Control group
Mean Std. Deviation Mean Std. Deviation
Before smoking Accident (road)1 1.77 1.95 1.50 2.13
Immediately after smoking Accident (road)2 1.30 1.73 .90 1.37
Half an hour after smoking Accident (road)3 .71 .96 .50 .67
Before smoking Accident (car)1 2.99 2.86 2.47 2.61
Immediately after smoking Accident (car)2 3.06 2.32 1.87 1.59
Half an our after smoking Accident (car)3 4.14 2.18 3.17 1.75
Before smoking Accident (pedestrian)1 1.30 .91 1.30 .75
Immediately after smoking Accident (pedestrian)2 .57 .67 .43 .50
Half an hour after smoking Accident (pedestrian)3 .71 .71 .67 .78
Before smoking Surpassing speed limit1 10.48 7.22 8.60 6.75
Immediately after smoking Surpassing speed limit2 9.54 6.61 8.63 7.58
Half an hour after smoking Surpassing speed limit3 12.80 8.01 11.17 6.09
Before smoking Total number of traffic light tickets 1 1.21 1.07 1.27 .98
Immediately after smoking Total number of traffic light tickets 2 1.12 .86 .70 .79
Half an hour after smoking Total number of traffic light tickets 3 .69 .72 .50 .67
Before smoking Centerline crossings1 7.03 6.53 5.87 4.73
Immediately after smoking Centerline crossings2 8.97 7.69 7.93 7.04
Half an hour after smoking Centerline crossings3 9.00 5.78 6.42 4.32
Before smoking Shoulder crossing1 7.65 6.72 6.30 5.09
Immediately after smoking Shoulder crossing2 5.80 4.92 5.50 4.39
Half an hour after smoking Shoulder crossing3 4.88 4.40 4.25 3.91
Before smoking Total time1 759.82 103.78 811.91 141.69
Immediately after smoking Total time2 748.86 98.90 757.26 174.36
Half an hour after smoking Total time3 715.13 121.20 766.01 174.94
Before smoking Exceeding speed limit (%time)1 13.38 10.75 10.09 9.27
Immediately after smoking Exceeding speed limit (%time)2 56.53 347.90 13.21 12.35
Half an hour after smoking Exceeding speed limit (%time)3 17.64 11.22 14.61 10.10
Before smoking Not keeping within lane (%time)1 7.22 6.67 6.38 6.01
Immediately after smoking Not keeping within lane (%time)2 8.16 6.97 7.60 6.84
Half an hour after smoking Not keeping within lane (%time)3 7.08 4.95 5.19 3.93
  1. Table 4 Presents the average of the measures in the three main driving scenarios (prior to WPS, immediately following WPS and half an hour subsequent to smoking a Water-Pipe). These measures are the outcome of the driving scenarios for every participant and every scenario. The measures include total number of road crashes, road crashes (self crash), car accidents, pedestrian accidents, surpassing the speed limit (this measure tested the number of times the driver exceeded the speed limit), the total number of traffic light violations, centerline crossings, road shoulder crossings and speed limit violations (%time). This measure indicates the percentage of time relative to the total driving time the driver surpasses the speed limit. The final measure was for not driving within the lane (%time) which showed the percentage of time relative to the total driving time the driver drove over the center divider and the shoulder boundary.