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Table 3 Mean differences between the three scenarios

From: The detrimental danger of water-pipe (Hookah) transcends the hazardous consequences of general health to the driving behavior

Sample Scenario pairs t Sig. (2-tailed) Paired Differences   
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Mean Std. Deviation
Upper Lower
Control group Pulse 1 – pulse-2 2.36 .025 2.99 .21 1.60 3.71
Saturation-1- Saturation-2 -.57 .573 .17 −.31 −.07 .64
pulse1 – pulse-3 1.97 .074 5.64 −.31 2.67 4.68
Saturation1- Saturation-3 -.56 .586 .24 −.41 −.08 .51
Experimental group Pulse-1–pulse-2 −11.84 .000 −12.20 −17.14 −14.67 10.29
Saturation-1- Saturation-2 3.02 .004 .96 .20 .58 1.59
pulse1 – pulse-3 −5.54 .000 −4.73 −10.11 −7.42 9.46
  Saturation1- Saturation-3 3.01 .004 .80 .16 .48 1.13
  1. Table 2 Presents the mean of the pulse rate and the level of blood oxygenation (saturation rate) in the three scenarios: prior to smoking a Water-Pipe, immediately following smoking and half an hour subsequent to WPS in experimental group comparing to non smokers control group. In the experimental group, immediately following WPS, a statistically significant increase (Table 3) in the pulse rate was observed - from 80 to 95 (t = 11.84, p < 0.05), while in the control group a significant decrease in the pulse rate was observed - from 83 to 81. Other important results is that in the experimental group - even half an hour after Water-Pipe smoking, the pulse rate continues to be higher than that prior to Water-Pipe smoking, and the difference between the two scenarios is statistically significant (t = 5.54, p < 0.05). While in the control group, no significant change in the pulse rate was observed. In the experimental group immediately following WPS, the saturation level decreased from 97.9 to 97.32, and the decrease is statistically significant (t = 3.01, p < 0.05); while in the control group, the no significant change in the saturation rate was observed. Furthermore, in the experimental group, half an hour after WPS, the saturation rate continued to be higher than that prior to WPS and the difference is statistically significant (t = 3.02), while in the control group, no change in the saturation rate was observed half an hour subsequent to experimental group smoking a Water-Pipe.